The demand for a separate Jharkhand state can be traced back to the early 1900s, when Jaipal Singh, an Indian Hockey captain and Olympian, suggested the idea of a separate state consisting of the southern districts of Bihar. The idea did not become a reality, however, until August 2nd, 2000, when the Parliament of India passed the Bihar Reorganisation Bill to create the state of Jharkhand, carving 18 districts out of Bihar to form Jharkhand state on 15th November, 2000. It became the 28th state of India.
However, according to some historians there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the period of Magadha Empire. According to a legend, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa was accepted as the ruler of Jharkhand by its people in the 13th century. The Singh Deo&39s of Orissa have been very instrumental in the early history of Jharkhand. The local tribal heads had developed into barbaric dictators who could govern the province neither fairly nor justly. Consequently, the people of this state approached the more powerful rulers of Jharkhand&39s neighbouring states who were perceived to have a more fair and just governance. This became the turning point in the history of the region wherein rulers from Orissa moved in with their armies and created states that were governed for the benefit of the people and involved their participation, thus ending the barbarism that had marked the region for centuries. The good tribal rulers continued to thrive and were known as the Munda Rajas, and exist to this day. (These are regions which are still semi- autonomous, the degree of autonomy depending on the size of each specific Munda Raja&39s domain.) Later, during the Mughal period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara. After the year 1765, it came under the control of the British Empire and became formally known under its present title, "Jharkhand" - the Land of "Jungles" (forests) and "Jharis" (bushes). Located on Chhota Nagpur Plateau and Santhal Parganas, has evergreen forests, rolling hills and rocky plateaus with many places of keen beauty.
Weather remains cool in most areas of jharkhand, especially Ranchi, Gumla, Netarhat, etc. Jharkhand has a rich variety of flora and fauna. The National Parks and the Zoological Gardens located in the state of Jharkhand present a panorama of this variety.
Betla National Park (Palamu), 25 km from Daltonganj covers an area of about 250 square kilometres. The national park has a large variety of wild life like tigers, elephants, bisons locally called gaurs, sambhars, hundreds of wild boar and 15 to 20 feet long python, herds of spotted deer (cheetals), rabbits and foxes. The mammalian fauna to be seen at Betla National Park also include langurs, rhesus, blue bull and wild boars. The lesser mammals are the porcupine, hare, wild cats, honey badgers, jackals, Malabar giant squirrel, mongoose, wolf, antelope, etc. In 1974, the park was declared Project Tiger Reserve.
Part of the reason for the variety and diversity of flora and fauna found in Jharkhand state may be accredited to the Project Tiger Reserve of Palamu, which is abode to hundreds of species of flora and fauna , as indicated within brackets: mammal (39), Snakes (8), Lizards (4), Fish (6), Insects (21), Birds (170), seed bearing Plants and Tress (97) , Shrubs and Herbs (46), Climbers, Parasites and semi-Parasites (25), and Grasses and Bamboo (17).
The Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary, with scenic beauties, 135 km from Ranchi, is set in an ecosystem very similar to Betla National Park of Palamu.
One Zoological Garden is also located about 16 km from Ranchi, and a number of mammalian fauna have been collected there for visitors.
Jharkhand is known as a rich state of poor but talented people. It has a concentration of some of the country’s highly industrialized cities such as Jamshedpur, Ranchi, Bokaro and Dhanbad. It also has several firsts in India, including:
First Iron & steel factory at Jamshedpur
Largest Steel plant in Asia, Bokaro steel plant.
Largest fertilizer factory of its time in India (since shut down) at Sindri
Biggest explosives factory at Gomia
First methane gas well
On the other hand, it has several towns and innumerable villages with sub-standard civic amenities. Urbanization ratio is only 22.25% and the per capita annual income is only US$ 90.
Jharkhand also has immense mineral resources: minerals ranging from (ranking in the country within bracket) from iron ore (1st), coal (3rd), copper ore (1st), mica (1st), bauxite (3rd), Manganese, limestone, china clay, fire clay, graphite (8th), kainite (1st), chromite (2nd), asbestos (1st), thorium (3rd), yemenite (2nd), sillimanite, uranium (Jaduguda mines, Narwa Pahar) (1st) and even gold (Rakha mines) (6th) and silver and several other minerals. Large deposits of coal and iron ore support concentration of industry, in centers like Jamshedpur, Bokaro and Ranchi. Tata Steel, a S&P CNX 500 conglomerate has its corporate office in Jharkhand. It reported a gross income of Rs.204,910 million for 2005.